Eating, M. (2009). Investments in protection: the policy of preferential trade agreements between the North and the South. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In 2006, Italian lawmakers began debating in Parliament how to introduce a Fair Trade Act. A consultation process was launched in early October, with the participation of a wide range of stakeholders.  A common definition of fair trade has been developed above all. However, it has not yet been adopted, as the efforts of the political crisis in Italy in 2008 have stalled. Fair trade standards include a global mix of social, economic and environmental criteria.
In 1994, the European Commission prepared the “Memo on Alternative Trade”, in which it expressed its support for strengthening fair trade in the South and North and its intention to establish an EC working group on fair trade. In the same year, the European Parliament also adopted the “Resolution on the Promotion of Equity and Solidarity in North-South Trade” (JO 1996, p. 1). A year later, in 1997, the document was followed by a resolution adopted by the European Parliament, which called on the European Commission to support fair-trade banana suppliers. In the same year, the European Commission published a survey on “the attitude of EU consumers towards fair trade bananas” and concluded that fair trade bananas would be commercially profitable in several EU Member States.  In 2005, French MP Antoine Herth published the report “40 proposals to promote the development of fair trade.” The report was followed in the same year by a law proposing the creation of a Commission for the Recognition of Fair Trade Organizations (Article 60 of the Act 2005-882, Small and Medium Enterprises, August 2, 2005).  In parallel with the laws, also in 2006, the French chapter of ISO (AFNOR) adopted, after five years of discussions, a reference document on fair trade. The concept of a fair trade school or a fair trade university was born in the United Kingdom, where the Fair Trade Foundation now maintains a list of colleges and schools that meet the requirements to be labelled as such.
To be considered a fair trade university, a school or university must have created a fair trade group. You must have a written and school-wide policy of fair trade. The school or university must devote itself to the sale and use of fair trade products. They must learn and inform about fair trade issues. Finally, the Fair Trade Foundation calls for schools to promote fair trade not only within the school, but also throughout the Community.  Ehrlich, S.D., Hearn, E. (2014). Does compensation for losers increase support for trade? An experimental test of buried liberalism undermines the thesis. External analysis., 10 (2), 149-164.
Jeckel, I.C., Smolka, M. (2013). Individual attitude towards trade: Stolper-Samuelson revisited. Open Economies Review, 24 (4), 731-761. The goal of the International Trade Administration`s Market Access and Compliance (MAC) Unit is to gain market access for American businesses and workers and to achieve full compliance with the trade agreements they sign with our country by foreign nations. This is how MAC liberalizes trade, which has proven that it takes the poor out of poverty and raises the standard of living of the average worker in the United States. Through the Trade Compliance Center, ITA is able to track certain instances where U.S. companies have barriers to entry or do not receive the full potential of negotiated agreements. A solution was found in 1988, when the first Fair Trade Certification Initiative, Max Havelaar, was created in the Netherlands on the initiative of Nico Roozen, Frans Van Der Hoff and the Dutch development NGO Solidaridad. Independent certification has enabled products to be sold outside stores around the world and to the general public, to reach a wider segment of consumption and to significantly increase the turnover of the equita trade.